下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Valuation of film rights，供大家参考学习，这篇论文讨论了电影版权的价值评估。在电影评估过程中，应当树立开发版权经济與创造版权价值的思维，该思维应贯穿在评估电影产业链的每一个阶段，从一开始考量内容创意生产是否存在拍摄续集的可能性以及塑造故事品牌的可能性，到考量线上线下终端发行营销的合理性，再到考量衍生品的创意开发与消费渠道的开拓，以及电影的后续保护与维持版权经营的可持续性与合理性。此外，版权价值的根源必然是影音文本本身的价值。
With the development of China's film industry, the path of film copyright evaluation and operation becomes more and more difficult amid the double power of digital media technology and huge capital injection. The lack of scientific and reasonable copyright evaluation path will become an obstacle to industry standardization and scale, thus hindering the development of Chinese film industry.
In the face of numerous and complicated film and television projects, investors can not see through the risk coefficient of the film project, so only dare to choose a few big companies, big director, big IP, especially big stars to join the project for cooperation. To the contrary, not only investment can not get the desired effect, but often blind to rob IP, ignore the IP property rights, and achievement for star risk disturbing the order of market behavior, in particular due to lack of film art value judgment, and blindly copying existing mode of commercial films, appear many vulgar, do not have any meaning of culture, only the pursuit of pure visual entertainment films. At the same time, due to the lack of an evaluation system for developing copyright economy, the copyright economy of each link of the film industry chain cannot be deeply explored. As a result, the commercial judgment of films is only based on the expected judgment of box office.
The characteristics of non-exclusivity and open consumption of public cultural products and services bring severe piracy problems to the market mechanism of films and literature, and non-exclusivity makes the reciprocal benefit mechanism of public products obtained through market exchange malfunction. Due to the lack of copyright awareness and the non-exclusivity of film and literature products, every consumer has the right to consume without paying. In the long run, businesses will not be able to recover production costs. At the same time, domestic audiences' movie-watching channels are transformed directly from cinemas to Internet platforms, lacking the potential payment possibilities of multiple integrated media between them. From the perspective of economics, the piracy problem in the film copyright market is actually a "free ride" in the economic market, which means that in order to maximize economic benefits, people hope to have some means to watch free or cheap films under the premise of opportunities. In terms of content creation, the "free ride" problem means that the production of film content is seriously homogenized, and the lack of an evaluation standard for film content will hinder the diversified development of film content in the long run.
Films with a number of creative personnel of each section of content production closely associated thinking innovation creation, artistic value and commercial value of double attributes means not directly, simply to production cost as the value standard, hardly a general formula of the measure, or reference to a stable market as a reference. Therefore, in the field of economic management, the valuation method is usually used to calculate intangible assets, while the income method, cost method and market method are not suitable.
According to the convention of copyright evaluation in the industry, the evaluation of copyright value of film and television works can be divided into two parts: before and after broadcasting. Based on the existing researches, most of them evaluate the copyright of films that have been released in cinemas. Since the economic income of Chinese films mainly comes from the box office, the copyright assessment mainly focuses on the box office income. The main indicators are director, actor, sequel, budget, script, expert rating, audience reputation, schedule, production company, award nomination, etc. Discussed in this paper, the key for the film, the terminal before the commercial value of pre-assessment, for this stage of the evaluation for the actual finished product to maximize the commercial value of film development, at the same time help to simulate the contact with the audience accept film process evaluation system, more importantly, to combine the present development of film industry and reality film reconstructs the evaluation index of new phenomenon. The evaluation indexes are three aspects: brand measurement, risk assessment and distribution path. Brand measurement includes: drama, adaptation strategy, production team, actors, copyright development potential; Risk assessment includes: laws and regulations, cultural and social factors; publishing port includes: publishing company, publishing path.
As the content source of film works, script is the cornerstone of film production. As an important evaluation index, the evaluation elements of script include theme, type, character, character relationship, plot, sequel and market positioning. In addition, it is necessary to measure the balance between the dual attributes of art and the market, as well as the social responsibility of the public media. Using symbols to represent the stars is the best way to win consumer identity projection; Typification is a shortcut to construct consumers' expectation of the content of works. Serialization is the systematic replication of successful works, thus becoming a brand and ensuring stable revenue. To evaluate film works with the concept of focus market not only cultivates audiences, but also provides diversified possibilities for the development of Chinese films.
The sources of scripts are diversified. According to the classification of existing scripts, there are remakes of classic movies and TV dramas, adaptations of literary works, adaptations of myths and legends, adaptations of anime and games, adaptations of history and adaptations of online literary works. No matter what kind of script, we should recognize the "commercialization" process of film works, which is essentially the process of transforming works of aesthetic imagination into commercial products with economic and social added value. Creative ideas need to be extracted from cultural and historical context, artistic resources and life itself, so as to endue script creation with special "symbol system", arouse more audiences' emotional resonance, and thus concentrate attention on economic benefits. If, as early as 2016, as long as the film works composed of big IP, big production, traffic stars and other elements will get a good box office, then since 2016, from the perspective of market performance, the failure of the film works composed of these elements has become more and more serious. Such as adapted from the novel with a large audience "junior iii li, peach blossom" jue mark "and so on movie box office losses. The opposite is the small film market segments such as the main melody movies are sought after by the market. This is the result of since 2016 audience viewing grade of change, the transition of the film market creation and laws to make the film industry development policies, such as the film industry promotion act. Small and medium-sized cost of July and she" 22 "the black place what the Vatican rinpoche qi" roadside picnic "films such as word of mouth and box office and win-win, Instructions for balance between art, market and social responsibility is the creation of the high quality film drama, also reflected the market segmentation, the importance of the mining niche topics. In addition, the development of the new mainstream films theme, almost become the present Chinese market phenomenal movie endorsement, "2" the war Wolf "the action of the Mekong river" "red sea action" "I'm not medicine god" and so on will play movies as with the mainstream values as commercial value perfect suture, this kind of movie is typed in film production, film text quickly to audience was accepted, film typed creation is the sign of mature film plays. Therefore, the evaluation of scripts should be judged between the balance of artistic content, market value and social responsibility
If the script comes from literary adaptation, we should also consider the adaptation strategies and effects from literature to film works. Literature has always been an important element in film content creation. The essence of the transformation from literature to film is to realize the transformation from literature, a written culture, to film, a visual culture. The most important thing is to complete the transformation from writing language to visual and auditory hypertext field, as well as the display of time and space in literature in films.
In the network literature adapted into film and television works has become a hot current, the focus of attention to be more complex. First of all, according to the Frankfurt school, if the classic literature brought by printing civilization represents elite culture, the corresponding audience is mainly composed of intellectuals. Then the network literature cultivated by the Internet digital platform corresponds to the "net-born generation" audience. With the growth of the Internet, the audience generation of online literature shows different characteristics from the previous literature readers. In the post-modern context, the serious elite culture is deconstructed by collage, parody, black humor and other methods. What's more critical is that the life context brought by the high-speed development of network technology, which is characterized by disorganized information and fragmented time, disintegrates the mystery and integrity of elite literature. We should face up to the original literature production space has been broken, the original confidentiality space collapse in open network, the network literature type to share the production mechanism of literature text, given the encoding and decoding process more polysemy, network literature in the form of hypertext supplant one-on-one decoding, totally broke the traditional literary wholeness. Secondly, the role of fan economy in the creation of online literature and film adaptation is also a key factor to be considered. As the product of consumer society, the consumption intensity of fan economy to the commercial value of films is a practical factor that we can know from the reaction of the film market. No matter the fan group of the original book or the star fan group of the film works, they should be regarded as the target group to develop more commercial value of the film. Therefore, on the premise of retaining the spirit of the original works of network literature, it is necessary to conduct research on the target market, measure the matching degree of the original works, films and target audiences, and then formulate adaptation strategies.
Production teams, directors and main actors with high quality and matching degree are all important indexes for film copyright evaluation. The evaluation indexes of these three indexes should be consistent. As the core figure of the creative team, in terms of market evaluation, the popularity of the director plays a certain role in attracting investment for the film project, as well as the attraction to the audience market. In terms of artistic creation, his ability and talent, working experience and artistic style are most relevant to film works. In addition to the reputation, working experience, industry reputation and film style, the evaluation of a director should attach importance to the matching degree between his previous shooting style and the film type he is good at and the film works evaluated. Directors in the mature film industry have a highly recognizable style of personal images, and the types of films they are good at are always projected in their works.
Actors are particularly important in assessing film rights. Especially in the age of fan economy, the number of fans is the standard to measure an actor. However, with the return of audience market rationality and the introduction of relevant film and television production regulations, it should be realized that the situation of selecting actors based on traffic will not last. Despite the arrival of two popular stars, "three lives, three generations, ten miles of peach blossom", which has a guaranteed bottom of 800 million yuan, earned 535 million yuan in the cinema, which means the producers lost more than 100 million yuan in investment. At the same time, fans' out-of-control behavior will lead to a lot of events disturbing the market order and causing terminal economic losses when the film is released in the terminal, such as the ticket refund event of "later we". Of course, the importance and charisma of an actor are important indicators of evaluation, but the acting ability and the character fit are more important criteria to evaluate the film. Due to the lack of cost and did not use any stars, but choose actors who fit the role of the small and medium budget film "maze", "picnic", "donkey water", etc., all received good reputation. Although there are no popular stars in such films, the professional degree of the leading actors and supporting actors is very high, and the supporting actors should also be taken into account in the evaluation of actor indicators. Therefore, when evaluating film actors, we should consider the whole group of actors and comprehensively evaluate their acting ability, professional quality, role fit, popularity, regional influence and other factors.
At the same time, it is important to emphasize the professionalism and multifaceted abilities of the producer and production team. Hollywood has stuck to the producer-centric system since the 1930s. Undoubtedly, compared with the current directoring-centered system in China, producer-centered film project production is a necessary mode for mature film industry. At present, there are still many investors who lack the understanding of the film and television industry, attach great importance to the fame of directors and actors, and ignore the role of production teams. After investing in film projects, they abandon the projects, resulting in shoddy, half-finished films and losses. In fact, the producer is the professional manager of film project management, who is the key to control the film process throughout the production. Film project operation and management ability, market awareness, film legal literacy, public relations coordination ability, are all required by an excellent producer and a production team. Some of the country's producers have moved on from the state-run film factory system, and more of their responsibilities are in the role of production directors, such as administrative services. The other is produced directly by investors, so there is still a long way to go to nurture good producers.
The difference between the high production cost and the low reproduction cost is the particularity of film products and the key factor to be considered when evaluating film copyright. Due to the particularity of film works, the nature of consumer goods consumption is the content consumption of products. Copyright economy is a typical post-industrial social product. Globalization whirlwind and the development of new media technology are also important driving forces for the development of copyright economy. It is important to realize that the output of intellectual creation is a private economic property that can be traded and owned. At present, China's film market consumption still is given priority to with the cinema box office, though the industry of copyright economy is more and more attention, but the copyright value remains to be further developed, copyright value lack of deep mining and the film industry is mainly at the box office income single film industry in China, the key reasons for the formation of industry value chain is not. At present, almost all the high-concept films in Hollywood rely on the industry chain outside the box office, which only accounts for 20% of the total revenue.
In evaluation process, the copyright shall set up the development of economy and create the value of the copyright of thinking, the mind should be evaluated throughout the film industry chain of every stage, from the very beginning consideration creative content production whether there is the possibility of a sequel, and the possibility of shaping brand story, to consider the rationality of the online terminal marketing issue, and then to consider derivatives channels to develop creative development and consumption, and the subsequent protection film and maintain the sustainability and the rationality of the copyright management. In addition, the root of copyright value must be the value of audio and video text itself, specifically, whether a number of audio and video elements, such as the image of the film protagonist, main actors, music elements, the fixed combination of the main creative team and special scenes, have the value of copyright development. If it has development value, it is necessary to carry out legal protection and binding design of elements that may generate business identification, timely register corresponding copyright trademarks and form contracts in the form of contracts, so as to establish brand value.